Bibliography of Research Literature on Instant Runoff Voting
Working Paper No.:  72
Date Published:  2009-02-01


Inés Levin, California Institute of Technology


This bibliography lists a diversity of publications related to Instant Runoff Voting (IRV). This voting method is a particular type of Single Transferable Vote (STV), applied in single-seat elections. † It is a sequential elimination voting procedure, and due to the use of ranked-ordered ballots, it belongs to the group of preferential-voting methods. It is also called Ranked Choice Voting (RCV) or Alternative Vote. One set of publications included in this bibliography is concerned with the impact of IRV, or runoff methods in general, on the party system, candidate behavior, voter choice, and minority representation. In particular, some authors compare the complexity of the system, and the incentives for strategic voter choice, and cooperation between candidates, relative to alternative methods. Another set of publications deals with the experience of several countries with the use of IRV –such as Australia, Fiji, and New Guinea, with some scholars focusing specifically on the encouragement of inter-ethnic cooperation and minority inclusion in divided societies, and on the moderation-character of policy outcomes. Finally, an additional group of publications considers the need for electoral reform in the US, and evaluates the adoption and results of the use of IRV in recent elections in the city of San Francisco. The selection criteria for inclusion in this bibliography was being a published book or peer reviewed article, making a significant contribution to the understanding of the voting system, by either studying its properties, its advantages and disadvantages relative to alternative methods, or providing evidence of its performance in real world situations.


Bibliography of Research Literature on Instant Runoff Voting  (Size: 48 KB)